Fifiye dating

His example of impres- sionism drawn from the countryman, * the noise of whose tramp was heard from afar as he approached,* is excellently paralleled by the spearmen of the huge Earl Doorm, * Feeding like horses when you hear them feed.' Admirable, too, are the editor's modem examples of personifi- cation of inanimate things on §§ 80-83.

It is hard to see how to dir COavov could mean * the idle trick.' For the thought cp. On this subject Demetrius further makes the acute observation, that humour and wit are spoiled by over-elaboration.

The only possible clew was guaniif^ which the poets did not invent, but found there to thd hand, in a language spoken by shepherds, and soldie and artizans. This, however, we regret the less, because the notes so teem with happy references and illustrations from modern literaturer-from Shakspeare and Milton to Stevenson and Phillips — ^that we are embarrassed by the amplitude of our material ; and even if we had far more room, we should have far too much to fill it. Roberts has a very keen eye and ear for literary beauty; and the treatise affords ample scope for the employ- ment of his wide and various knowledge of modern literature.

There is, for example, a reference to the persecution in Inst. If « reader of verse saw before him a word like Trpoenm(\ov Ta, how was he to be directed to find the ictus without hesitai tion or stumbling, seeing that three consecutive syllables were capable of receiving it f And before the invention o writing, how were verses to be held firmly together, to b kept in shape ? But we refer here to this passage because we think it explains a subsequent comment in which the Editor's rendering does not seem quite satisfactory. 9 8€ivov yap Tro XXaxov ko L TO hvo TKfi Ooyyov wo TTcp at dvco/ta Xoi o Sot is translated, * yes, in many places harshness gives all the effect of vehemence, as though we were jolted on rough roads.' Might we render * harshness often is striking like wild, broken scenery ' ? If the language of Theopompus is forcible, the writer may fairly be described as forcible ; but the point of the passage is that, though the situation described is forcible {irpdyfiara ii iav Tiov iari Sctva), the Style of Theopompus is weak. 8 : ' excessive antithesis, already condemned in the case of Theopompus, is out of place even in Demosthenes, as in the following passage, ctc Xcis, cyw 8c c Tc Xov/Lwyv.' But the expression ov Se iv TOis Arjfioar Oev LKoi's ^/xoa€v demands the translation * is out of place in the Demosthenic passage too,' as is proved by the addition of €v6a, whereas the editor's version would imply that in some cases Demosthenes might claim indulgence for a fault unpardonable in Theopompus. We have dwelt so long on the fascinating theme of the exact reproduction of the thoughts of this very interesting and sugges- tive writer, that we have little space to detail other special excellences of this edition. The editor's services to the interpretation of his author are of equally fundamental importance, as our brief account of the introduction will have led the reader to expect ; but we must content ourselves with mere references to some of the more important passages, where new methods of construing are to be found, viz., 102.

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It is curious that Demetrius condemns a/x.^t 8' ccro XTrtyfcv ftcyas ovpavds, on the ground that a great thing, the firmament, is com- pared to a small thing, a trumpet. This seems to be shown by the fact that quantity is sacrificed wherever that can be done without the practical inconvenience of damage to the metrical clew — for example, in the alternate feet of the 7CV0C S«r Xaa Cv€Tai, r Q Sipx S ^^v 8p6/iov to Tt Xoi is translated * for at the beginning of their race the end of the course is manifest.' The context would seem to demand * in the case of runners the beginning and the end of the course find their expres- sion in one word,' ircpio Sos, a coming round to the starting-pointy in which sense irep Co So^ is used in Plut. 15, would seem to show that to airi Oavov must mean *its artificiality,' or 'inability to convince' (see § 221), or 'want of naturalness,' or, that it should be corrected to to dira Oh, or tijk dira^ctav, both of which expressions occur in the treatise. Yet the context shows that he meant rather culture. We have often to ask ourselves a similar question about Milton and others. Enough has been said, perhaps, to bring support to the doctrine that quantity in Greek verse had as its immediate function, not the producing of an aesthetic efifect, but the guiding of the reader or reciter in his declamation — that is to say, a merely practical function. The very parallel passage quoted from Longinus, in illustration of 76. Demetrius points out the effectiveness of the repeti- tion of the name Nireus in B. 'Repetition, recurrence,' is certainly the meaning of i'n'avaopd, but Sto Xvcrts is hardly * dis- junction.' It means the avoidance of conjunctions in 'Nireus brought three ships, Nireus the son of Aglaea, Nireus the goodliest man.* This appears from the next section, § 63, where he points out how 'the opposite figure is sometimes effective, and illustrates by * the host consisted of both Greeks and Carians and Lycians and Pamphylians and Phrygians,' adding, * the repeated use of the same conjunction gives the impression of a countless host.' As a modern example of the effectiveness of repeating a name, the editor aptly compares Tennyson's 'Elaine the fair, Elaine the lovable, Elaine the lily maid of Astolat.' Had Tennyson the Homeric passage in his mind ? Besides, Demetrius is very prone to transgress the natural order of words. Demetrius makes it an indication of character, rov 17^0^9 ris I/a- ^oo-is. But it is granted that in itself the use of the present tense cannot be pressed. 6, 7, in which no one would think of building anything on the use of the present tense ;' and the same may be said of vii. Pichon contends that in some places it is implied that already there was a lull in the persecution. A similar implication seems to lie in the opening sentence of the same chapter (v. i) : *Cum autem noster numerus semper de deorum cultoribus augeatur, numquam uero ne in ipsa quidem persecutione minuatur.' The indications of later date, which are supposed to be given by such passages as v. Consequently, ictus and accent could not coincide, as a general practice. a word, therefore, was no guide to the ictus, and another guide, or clew, as I have called it, had to be found. 1 8, i\€T(o Sc Kol ISpav aartfxi Xrj Ttov Kmkiov ra ri Xrf kol pdaiv, I'jg. Demetrius adduces the well-known verse * 1 16, iro AAa S* avavra Karavra irdpavrd re 8o\/t ^XOov, as an example of caco- phony intended by Homer to suggest * broken ground,' t^v dvu)- fia Xtav, We do not accept this view, so characteristic of Demetrius and his age, that the primitive bard used any such self-conscious literary trick. Surely ovo/mra ought to be bracketed as a corruption of o KTa, which is superscribed in P., not as an addition, but as a correction. 12 we have in Karrj^opiai d Troiccicpvfifiei^ai an expression which would have fairly conveyed this meaning. It will now be evident that the present edition has set the criticism of Aristoxenus on a completely fresh basis, and leaves to previous texts a merely historical interest. An event must be past before it can be related ; and one who wrote at some distance from the scene {as Lactantius probably did: see V. 15) could not have direct knowledge of what was pass- ing at the time of writing. And it is worthy of note that in the summary of Book V. £t inter haec sufiundebatur facias aqua frigida et os umore abluebatur, ne are- scentibus siccitate faucibus cito spiritus redderetur.' But M. xo : ' Ita fit ut data diuinitus pace et qui fugerunt universi redeant et alius propter miraculum uirtutis nouus populus accedat.' But do these words imply anything more than that peace had been restored where Lactantius wrote— or, in other words, that the book was penned in Gaul, and not earlier than 306 ? Further, Greek was rich in polysyllables — such common words as (Aaai Ximc, vfioo- a Tt S\ov Ta, i^aviaravai. But the long syllables are very oftea unaccented — as in l^avurravai — and the accented syllabled are very often short. The translation throughout is marked by so much vigour and dash that we hesitate to point to a lack of those qualities in ^ the forcible style demands a certain vehemence and terseness, and resembles combatants dealing blows at close quarters.* We should prefer ' the aim of the forcible style is to be sharp and short like sword-play.' But we could fill pages with examples of ingenuity and of happy turns in the translation. Thus, to take one of the examples given, Demetrius of Phalerum rebuked the pride of Craterus, who was receiving the Greek embassies with arrogance, by one word tovtov, *we once received these men as ambassadors together with thai Craterus.' Of course this comes very near * covert allusion,' but is * covert allusion* to be found in the Greek .'^ In 144. Public domain books are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the publisher to a library and finally to you. John- stone, 29 The Meaning of Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics^ i095*« 2. Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. Google This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world's books discoverable online. It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain.

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